International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences

Submit a Manuscript

Publishing with us to make your research visible to the widest possible audience.

Propose a Special Issue

Building a community of authors and readers to discuss the latest research and develop new ideas.

Research Article |

Investigation of Galerina sulciceps-Induced Food Poisoning: A Case Study

Objective: This study aimed to investigate a poisoning incident resulting from the consumption of wild mushrooms, understand the poisoning process, identify the cause of poisoning, and determine potential influencing factors. Methods: The investigation employed epidemiological methods, morphological and molecular identification of mushroom samples, and toxin detection. Results: A 65-year-old male and a 62-year-old female consumed approximately 300g of wild mushrooms, while a 3-year-old boy only consumed mushroom soup. Symptoms including abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea appeared in the three individuals 14-17 hours after consumption. The patients were correctly diagnosed and treated at approximately 19 hours, 43 hours, and 72 hours after consuming the wild mushrooms. Upon admission, the liver function indicators of the three patients were: 102U/L (ALT)/141U/L (AST), 1186U/L (ALT)/795U/L (AST), and 15446U/L (ALT)/18033U/L (AST), respectively. The 65-year-old male and 62-year-old female were discharged on the 7th and 9th day after treatment, respectively, while the 3-year-old boy died on the 6th day. Morphological and molecular identification of fresh toxic mushrooms revealed Galerina sulciceps as the causative agent. Laboratory testing detected three types of amatoxins, including α-amanitin, β-amanitin, and γ-amanitin. Conclusion: The outbreak of this incident was caused by the ingestion of toxic mushrooms Galerina sulciceps containing amatoxins. The prognosis of amatoxin-induced poisoning is associated with timely and accurate diagnosis and treatment. It is recommended to strengthen public education and market supervision to prevent the picking and consumption of wild mushrooms. The public should be reminded to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms appear 6-7 hours after consuming wild mushrooms and inform the healthcare providers about their history of wild mushroom consumption.

Investigation, Mushroom, Food Poisoning, Galerina Sulciceps

APA Style

Zhifan, H., Xiaohui, L., Haiying, M., Qiang, Z., Chunying, L., et al. (2023). Investigation of Galerina sulciceps-Induced Food Poisoning: A Case Study. International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences, 12(6), 166-172.

ACS Style

Zhifan, H.; Xiaohui, L.; Haiying, M.; Qiang, Z.; Chunying, L., et al. Investigation of Galerina sulciceps-Induced Food Poisoning: A Case Study. Int. J. Nutr. Food Sci. 2023, 12(6), 166-172. doi: 10.11648/j.ijnfs.20231206.11

AMA Style

Zhifan H, Xiaohui L, Haiying M, Qiang Z, Chunying L, et al. Investigation of Galerina sulciceps-Induced Food Poisoning: A Case Study. Int J Nutr Food Sci. 2023;12(6):166-172. doi: 10.11648/j.ijnfs.20231206.11

Copyright © 2023 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1. General Office of the State Health Commission. Notice on the situation of food poisoning incidents nationwide in 2015. Chinese Journal of Food Hygiene, 2016, 28 (3): 290, 391, 408.
2. Jiang K, Ao YP, Luo HB. Analysis of the Food Poisoning in China from 1999 to 2015. Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences, 2018, 46 (28): 147-150, 154.
3. Zhou J, Yuan Y, Lang N, et al. Analysis of mushroom poisoning incidents and hazards in mainland China. Chinese Journal of Emergency Medicine, 2016, 25 (6): 724-728. DOI: 10.3760/cma.j.issn.1671-0282.2016.06.008.
4. Chen W, Lan Z, Cheng G, et al. Foodborne disease outbreaks in family in Sichuan,2010-2018. Modern Preventive Medicine, 2019, 46 (23): 4391-4395.
5. Liu Z, Li XH, Wang Y, et al. Analysis of poisoning caused by poisonous plant in Chengdu,2017. Modern Preventive Medicine, 2019, 46 (7): 1308-1320.
6. National Center for Biotechnology Information.
7. Guo C, Yang CL, Li XH, et al. Investigation and analysis of a poisoning event caused by Galerina sulciceps. Adverse Drug Reactions Journal, 15 (1): 22-26. DOI: 10.3760/cma.j.issn.1008-5734.2013.01.007.
8. Zhang HM, Ye JS, Wang W, et al. Investigation and analysis of the first poisoning incident caused by Galerina sulciceps in Guizhou Province. Journal of Qiannan Medical College for Nationalities, 2015, 28 (3): 195-198.
9. Chen ZH. New advances in researches on poisonous mushrooms since 2000. Mycosystema, 2014, 33 (3): 493-516. DOI: 10.13346/j.mycosystema.140041.
10. Tu LGE, Bao HY, Li Y. A revised checklist of poisonous mushrooms in China. Mycosystema, 2014, 33 (3): 517-548. DOI: 10.13346/j.mycosystema.130256.
11. Huang S, Chen ZH, Zhang P. Detection of Amanitin Toxins from Fruiting Body and Pure Culture of Galerina sulciceps. Fungal Science, 2015, 13 (3): 164-167. DOI: 10.13341/j.jfr.2014.1058.
12. Mas A. Mushrooms, amatoxins and the liver. J Hepatol. 2005; 42: 166–169.
13. Zheleva A, Tolekova A, Zhelev M, et al. Free radical reactions might contribute to severe alpha amanitin hepatotoxicity--a hypothesis. Med Hypotheses. 2007; 69: 361–7.
14. Sun J, Sun CY, Li HJ, et al. Research progress on amanita peptide toxins. Chinese Journal of Emergency Medicine, 2006, 25 (8): 1076-1081. DOI: 10.3760/cma.j.issn.1671-0282.2016.08.025.
15. Yilmaz I, Ermis F, Akata I, et al. A Case Study: What Doses of Amanita phalloides and Amatoxins Are Lethal to Humans?. Wilderness & Environmental Medicine, 2015, 26 (4): 491-496. DOI: 10.1016/j.wem.2015.08.002.
16. Afrah Thiab Hlail. Mushroom (Amanita phalloides) Poisoning: Mechanisms, Pathogenesis, Prognosis and Strategies of Treatment. University of Thi-QarJournalof Science (UTsci). 2021; 8 (2): 16-22. DOI: 10.32792/utq/utjsci.v8i2.807.
17. Wang LL, Lin D, Gao SH, et al. Investigation and analysis of a food poisoning incident caused by consumption of poisonous mushrooms resulting in 6 deaths. Chinese Journal of Food Hygiene, 2017, 29 (4): 505-507.
18. Sun YB, Cao RM, Liu S, et al. Investigation of a poisoning incident caused by ingestion of Amanita subpallidorosea. Preventive medicine tribune, 2012, 18 (10): 778-782. DOI: 10.16406/j.pmt.issn.1672-9153.2012.10.004.
19. Satora L, Pach D, Ciszowski K, et al. Panther cap Amanita pantherina poisoning case report and review. Toxicon, 2006, 47 (5): 605-607. DOI: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2006.01.008.